The Encephalitis case study embraces 2 model diseases: Nipah Virus and Japanese Encephalitis. Both are viruses found in Southeast Asia, responsible for zoonotic diseases and their symptoms are characterized by headaches. Moreover, encephalitides are perceived by local communities as a unique disease, which makes it more interesting to consider the prevention and surveillance of both with a common approach.
For more information about those encephalitides: Encephalitis management
Latest update about the Nipah Virus (NiV):
The main objective is to understand the transmission ecology of NiV, and the socio-economic dynamics in order to identify and manage potential risk of infection in humans.
One important axe in the study of the virus is to study the flying foxes populations, and how flying foxes play a role in the virus cycle and/or transmission.
First researches aimed to understand the influence of population dynamics of the reservoir on the circulation of Nipah virus. It has been observed that there is a seasonal peak of excretion of Nipah virus in bats urine, related to bat’s reproduction cycle. The next step of the research will be to study the potential routes of transmission from Flying foxes to Humans and domestic animals in Cambodia. These field activities are planned from April to June.
Several potential routes of transmission have been identified and needed to be assessed through field investigations:
- Fruit Harvesting -> Diet study of Flying Fox species.
- Palm Sap drinking -> Farming practices and risk of spillover.
- Pig Farming-> Farming practices and risk of spillover.
- Food contamination-> Commercial practices and risk of spillover.
- Hunting-> Cultural practices and risk of spillover.
Latest update about Japanese Encephalitis (JE):
For the Japanese Encephalitis virus, the epidemiological cycle including the transmission to human is known (see the encephalitis page: Encephalitis management).
A National campaign of vaccination will start in 2016.
The main objective considering JE is to define the risks, and health and economic impacts of Japanese encephalitis virus on humans and pigs and how can they be reduced in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. This objective has been split in 2 sub-objectives :
- Collecting evidences of JE burden and of JE control possibilities through reviewing and research activities.
- Propose a framework for an integrated management of JE transmission cycle, knowing that vaccination is being implemented and that it will probably not provide a long term solution.
To achieve the first sub-objective, pig sentinel studies has been done to estimate the force of infection and to identify the different factors that could explain a different circulation of JE in rural and peri-urban areas.
It highlighted the fact that despite there are more households owning pigs in rural areas than in peri-urban areas, there is a high seroprevalence in the pig population in both area (around 95% when they reach 6 months old). This denotes an important circulation of JEV in rural and peri-urban settings.
The second sub-objective will be achieved by incorporating mathematical models of JEV circulation within role playing games to co-design an integrated framework for the management of JE with the stakeholders.
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